Monday, February 27, 2006

Manila: Tomb raider adventures in Manila's necropolis

The HCS meeting at Gota de Leche ended shortly before lunch. And as expected, when there is a large gathering of heritage buffs, an impromptu adventure is in the works. And guess where we decided to go?! Yup, it was a three-in-one afternoon since it was off to three of Manila's historic cemeteries. And we had the best tour guide to take us there, none other than Binondo's street walker and my tokayo Ivan ManDy. With us was Prof. Jojo Mata and Chinatown heritage denizen Jeffrey Yap.

You must be thinking we were all crazy! Why would someone in his right mind visit cemeteries for a leisurely afternoon adventure. Well, the answer is simple... these old cemeteries are the last bastion of Philippine architectural history. They were one of the few areas that were not bombed during the Second World War for obvious reasons which is why the architectural treasures inside were preserved for this generation to see. In fact, a visit to these three cemeteries should be an SOP, a must if I may say so, for any architectural history class since all architectural styles that ever reached Philippine soil from the 1870s to the present are represented in these cities of the dead. From the grand to the whimsical, the numerous mausoleums give today's generation a picture of how rich Philippine architecture was before and shortly after the war. Indeed, this necropolis is a time capsule of Philippine history and culture! Sad to say, my camera is still out of commission, and I had to borrow Ivan ManDy's camera to take shots. There are more but I will have to meet up with him to get the files.

Our first stop was Norte or the Manila North Cemetery. Before the Libingan ng mga Bayani, there was Norte. And that explains the heavy concentration of who's who in Philippine society in it such as revolutionary generals honored in the Mousoleo de los Veteranos de la Revolucion (photo at left) together with other prominent Katipuneros; Philippine presidents Sergio Osmena, Manuel Roxas and Ramon Magsaysay, senators Isauro Gabaldon, Pedro Guevara, Claro M. Recto and Gerry Roxas, House speaker Quintin Paredes, Malolos Congress delegate Benito Legarda, former Manila mayors and other prominent politicians who led our nation during a time when being called a politician was an honor; renowned boxer Pancho Villa; and big names in the arts such as painter Felix Resurrecion Hidalgo, composer Julio Nakpil, architects Arcadio Arellano and Juan Nakpil, and the giants of Philippine cinema which includes Fernando Poe, Sr. and just recently, Fernando Poe, Jr. Prominent foreign citizens can be found here as well including well-loved American governor-general Francis Burton Harrison.

Each stratum of society was represented, with special plots reserved for certain groups such as the Jewish cemetery, the Masonic burial grounds, the military and police plot, the Thomasites' plot, and that of the twenty boy scouts who died in a 1963 plane crash on their way to the 11th World Jamboree in Greece. Their names are memorialized in a series of streets in Quezon City.

The tombs and mausoleums are reminders of an architectural era gone by, designed by the best architects of their time and rendered by top sculptors and builders. From art deco to neo-romanesque and neo-gothic, these monuments stand-out as cultural relics. But Norte is just the tip of the iceberg and our next stop was an even more exciting collection of architecture, a fusion of East and West that results in an ecclectic mix of architectural style and detail only found in the Philippines. And one can never prepare himself for the surprise that beckons at the Chinese Cemetery on a first visit.

The 54-hectare neighbor of Norte, with areas known as Millionaire's Row and Little Beverly Hills, and temples and monuments to heroes and martyrs as well as grave villas all around, the Chinese Cemetery is a cultural treasure. Indeed I was not prepared for what I was going to see.

Cultures mix in every corner, with Buddhist, Confucian and Taoist practices blended in with Catholic tradition. I was surprised to see Catholic images hidden behind Taoist deities at the country's oldest Chinese temple, the Chong Hock Tong temple (photo above left). The group was lucky to see the arrival of a Chinese funeral procession with all its pomp and pageantry. And yet the tolling of the temple bells was distinctly Catholic.

Near the temple were various monuments to war heroes and martyrs. Most imposing of these is the Japanese War Memorial Mausoleum (photo at left), a large hall with photos of ten Chinese community leaders who were executed by the Japanese at the onset of the Second World War. During the Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s, nationalistic passions among the Chinese was very high and these leaders called for a boycott of all Japanese products. Little did they know that the Japanese had them on their watchlist. So when the rising sun arrived in Manila, they were the first to go.

Speaking about executions, the cemetery was witness to many of them during WWII. Have you ever wondered who that lady in the 1000-peso bill is? That is Girl Scouts organizer Josefa Llanes Escoda who was martyred in the cemetery. Her name is one in a list of prominent Filipino and Chinese-Filipino citizens martyred in the grounds which includes literary geniuses Rafael Roces and Manuel Arguilla, and Chinese Consul General Yang Guangsheng. Behind the mausoleum are more memorials to war heroes.

Moving up and down the alleys and roads of the Chinese Cemetery makes us wonder what ever happened to the architectural savvy of today's Filipino. From burial mounds and traditional Chinese architecture, to East-meets-West fusion architecture that can't be found anywhere else in the world, to sleek Miami-inspired buildings that would get you loco over art deco, the clean and streamlined post-war modernism, the funky 1970s and 1980s post-modernism and today's 21st Century structural modernism, outstanding examples of these styles and even more can be found in the Chinese Cemetery. Size and detail of structures are testaments to the status and wealth of the owners when they were among the living. It is no surprise for example that Chinabank founder Dee C. Chuan had a towering deco edifice for his final resting place (photo 2nd from left).

Each mausoleum in the art deco area is a work of genius. Who could miss for example Paulino Go Checo's spaceship deco (photo at left). There also mausoleums of Chinese-Filipino personalities and under this category is that of "mami king" Ma Mon Luk, one of the cemetery's more popular residents. More photos in Ivan ManDy's webshots page.

I did hear one trivia about the Chinese Cemetery though... that it is the most expensive piece of real estate in the country! Anyway, one really needs a lot of time to explore the place in detail. Maybe next time since we had one last stop for the afternoon cemetery tour. If Norte is the secular cemetery, the last stop was the main Catholic cemetery of Manila. To cap the day was a visit to the last of the three neighbors, the Campo Santo de la Loma.

The La Loma Cemetery sits on a hill that bears its name. Near the old entrance is the 19th Century chapel of St. Pancratius (photo at left) which has already been decomissioned with the construction of a modern parish church near the new entrance. The chapel was locked but I was curious what could be found inside. I guess the photos of La Loma can speak for themselves so here is the blog of my tokayo which he has filled with La Loma's architectural works of art.

Buried within La Loma's walls are more who's who to add to our growing list. I remember seing among others the mausoleums of chief justices Cayetano Arellano (photo below) and Victorino Mapa, and Malolos Congress delegate Pablo Ocampo.

There are also a lot of prominent Kapampangan families who've chosen this cemetery as their final resting place. There are the Pamintuans of Angeles, the Dayrit y Pamintuan and Salgado clans of San Fernando (revolutionary women Felisa Pamintuan Dayrit and Teodora Salgado-Ulmann are buried in La Loma), and the Alvendia y Guanzon clan of Sta. Rita and Floridablanca. Norte also has Kapampangan families such as the Escaler y Ocampo clan of Apalit and San Fenando. Also in La Loma are the parents and siblings of Rufino Cardinal Santos of Guagua. I was surprised to find members of my own family there, Maria Santos vda. de Pekson (the eldest daughter of my great-great-grandfather Don Mariano Leon Santos y Joven) and her two daughters who both died in a plane crash in 1946. I wonder who visits since they died without children.

The three cemeteries of La Loma hill should be declared a part of our national heritage. They are repositories of our history, heroes and heritage, and should thus be protected and preserved for future generations of Filipinos. Other cemeteries worth visiting in Metro Manila are the Paco Panteon (now known as Paco Park), the Libingan ng mga Bayani and the Manila American Cemetery and Memorial. Photos of Chinese Cemetery courtesy of Ivan ManDy.

Related article
Cemeteries are a time capsule of RP history, culture

Sunday, February 26, 2006

Manila: Gota de Leche... una gota lleno de esperanza!

My comprehensive exams are finally over... I hope! Hehe! So that's one load off my shoulders. Now it's time to catch up with the backlog, that is work which has piled up since I had to drop everything and focus on my exams. That's the same reason this blog had been untouched since Christmas! Hehe!

Anyway, I was at the Gota de Leche building yesterday to attend the general assembly and elections of the Heritage Conservation Society (HCS). Located along Lepanto (now S.H. Loyola Street) in Sampaloc, Gota de Leche was saved from years of neglect after a 2002 restoration that won the UNESCO Asia-Pacific Cultural Awards for restoration in 2003. The project summary reads: "The Gota de Leche building, situated in a congested area of Manila, was restored to its original appearance of 1917. The rental building attached to it in a recent past has been removed to offer clear sight lines from the street and vehicular access. The charitable program of providing free pediatric care and milk to poor children through the Gota de Leche (drop of milk) activities has been maintained since the original completion of the building."

Today, it may be the last remaining heritage property of value on historic Lepanto. And as the proposal says, "this (restoration) project shows to the anti-heritage conservation Manila authorities and population that heritage is valuable, viable, and applicable to the lifestyle of the contemporary Manileno."

Back to the HCS meeting, I was one of those nominated to the 2006-2008 Board of Trustees. And to make the long story short, I'm in. Congratulations as well to the other members of the incoming HCS Board of Trustees: incumbent HCS president Gemma Cruz-Araneta, former DepEd undersecretary Juan Miguel Luz, former ambassador Raul Goco, urban planner Nathaniel von Einseidel, restoration architect Melvin Patawaran, and Prof. Rene Luis Mata of the UP College of Architecture. Photo of the HCS board courtesy of the Philippine Tatler; Gota de Leche courtesy of Ivan ManDy.

To be continued...

Saturday, December 24, 2005

Giant Lantern Festival of San Fernando, Pampanga

Just a few hours before Christmas! Masayang Pasku kekayu ngan! I just came from a tiring drive. I was on my way back to Manila from Pampanga when I was reminded by a friend of mine that she had ordered ensaimada. Damn! It slipped my mind! So to make the long story short, I drove to Manila to pick up the orders; went back to Pampanga to make the delivery; and now I'm back in Manila in time for our noche buena. Ever since my lolo died in 1993, our clan no longer does its annual tradition of sleeping over in Pampanga for Christmas eve since an uncle and aunt are scared to sleep in the old house, fearful of lolo's ghost. Thus, I traversed the NLEX three times in two hours! And tomorrow, I will use the NLEX two more times when I go back to Pampanga to visit relatives and back home again. I wish the toll was cheaper!

I had arrived in San Fernando the day before to watch the exhibition of giant lanterns (I missed the Giant Lantern Festival this year since I had an affair to attend in Tagaytay that night). So I had to make do with the post-festival exhibitions. And like in any big event, expect hawkers (vendors to us Filipinos) to gate crash. So before the program, I had a sampling of Pampanga street food... fried breaded chicken skin! Hehe! More LDL for me (if you still cannot distiguish whether HDL or LDL is the good or bad cholesterol, just remember LDL = lechon de leche... hehe!).

The Giant Lantern Festival is quite close to my heart. Aside from the fact that it is the pride of the City of San Fernando, Pampanga and that in 2003, at the age of 24, I became the youngest person ever to serve as chairman of the Giant Lantern Festival Executive Committee; the giant lanterns of San Fernando make me proud to be a Filipino. Watching these technological works of art never cease to amaze me as I marvel at the craftsmanship and ingenuity of the Fernandino lantern makers.

As tourism officer of the City of San Fernando, I wrote many of the articles and promotional materials for the festival which are still in use today. Allow me thus to quote an old article which has become staple in promoting the festival:

* * *

Henares, Ivan Anthony S. (2001). How to make a giant lantern: The story behind the giant lanterns of San Fernando. School Project. University of the Philippines (Extension Program in Pampanga). 

Most only see the finished product. The dynamic interplay of lights and color that precisely moves with the rhythm of a brass band, the magnitude of size and their intricate designs, and so much more which spectators only get to appreciate as the giant lanterns of San Fernando are pitted against each other on festival night. No one can dispute the fact that the Giant Lantern Festival of San Fernando is the event that the province of Pampanga is most known for. And it is sad that we rarely acknowledge the tremendous preparation and investment the makers put in each of these giant lanterns. It is because of these giant lanterns and the San Fernando lantern-making industry that the City of San Fernando has been dubbed the Christmas Capital of the Philippines.

San Fernando and the Christmas lantern
It is one of the trades that are undisputedly Kapampangan. Lantern making first began in the town of San Fernando during the early part of this century. What distinguish the San Fernando lantern from the ordinary parol are the intricate designs and the illusion of dancing lights, which highlight the vibrant colors of the lantern.

The Christmas lantern can never be distanced from the town which created it, the City of San Fernando. It is what San Fernando is known for. And it is what has made the city famous all over the country and even around the world. Such a creation however, did not come without the untiring efforts of San Fernando’s citizens, and more so, their creativity and innovation. And it is because of the Christmas lantern that San Fernando has earned for itself the title of Christmas Capital of the Philippines. And to truly appreciate the colorful and intricate display of lights, one must understand its deep history and the strong traditions involved in the creation of the San Fernando Giant Lantern.

The Giant Lantern Festival

The San Fernando lantern industry evolved from the Giant Lantern Festival of San Fernando. The festival, which is held every December, finds its roots in Bacolor where a much simpler activity was held. Following the transfer of the provincial capital from Bacolor to San Fernando in August of 1904, this parul event followed as well. "Ligligan Parul" was said to have started in San Fernando in the year 1904. But some say that the "Ligligan Parul" did not happen immediately after the transfer and in fact began in 1908.

This predecessor of the modern day Giant Lantern Festival was actually a religious activity which we know today as “lubenas.” The lanterns measured just two feet in diameter, a far cry from the fifteen feet that we see today. These were created in each barrio from bamboo and other locally available materials. During the nine-day novena before Christmas, which coincided with the simbang gabi from December 16 to 24, these paruls were brought around each barrio in procession to their visita. Before the midnight Mass on Christmas Eve, the lanterns were brought to the town church together with the barrio patrons.

This tradition gradually evolved as the lanterns became bigger and the designs more intricate. Later, one big lantern was made for each barrio, which was created through a cooperative effort. Each resident contributed to its construction, from the concept and design, to the materials and labor. In the end, these lanterns became a symbol of unity for the barrios.

One version tells us that it was in the year 1931 that electricity was introduced to the San Fernando lantern, thus sparking the birth of the first Giant Lantern Festival. The added illusion of dancing lights highlighted the bright colors and intricate designs of these Giant Lanterns. At this time, the lights were controlled by individual switches that were turned on and off following the beat of the music. The barangays of Del Pilar, Sta. Lucia and San Jose were among the first barangays to participate in the festival.

According to another version claimed by old folks, the Giant Lantern Festival started during the time of President Manuel L. Quezon. At that time, President Quezon was trying to make Pampanga a model province. In fact, Quezon made Arayat his resting place and converted the legendary Mount Arayat into a tourist resort. As a show of gratitude to Quezon, the people of San Fernando held a Christmas lantern contest to honor the first family. Quezon himself donated the prize for this lantern contest, which was personally awarded to the winner by First Lady Aurora Aragon Quezon.

Fernandino creativity at work

In years that followed, more innovations were introduced to the giant lanterns. Colored plastic replaced the traditional papel de hapon. Large steel barrels called rotors also substituted the hand-controlled switches to manipulate the lights. Strips of masking tape on these rotors determine the sequence of the switching on and off of the lights.

The technology of the rotor is quite simple. Hairpins, attached to the end of the wires leading to each individual bulb, connect the lights to the rotor, which in turn, is connected to the source of electricity. Strips of masking tape are placed on the metal rotor to serve as light switches. As the rotor is turned, the hairpins pass through the strips of masking tape. When a certain hairpin hits a strip of masking tape, the current to a specific set of bulbs is temporarily cut thus switching off that particular set of bulbs. When that particular hairpin regains contact with the steel barrel, the bulbs are again lit. Thus, the placement of the masking tape on the rotors determines the interplay of lights on the lanterns and can spell success or disaster for each entry.

Thinking about it, one needs a lot of creativity and technical know-how in designing a giant lantern. It is not as easy as getting a pen and paper and drawing a symmetrical design. As the giant lantern maker visualizes his design, he also has to take into consideration the interplay of lights and colors. And just to illustrate the magnitude of difficulty, the designer should be able to picture when each of the 3,500 light bulbs should go on and off. And just to stress, no computers are involved in the interplay of lights. Everything is done manually, yet the result produced by the lantern makers of San Fernando can even rival light effects done by computers.

The design, however, is just a part of the actual labor involved in the creation of a giant lantern. Once this has been finalized, the lantern makers weld together a steel frame, which follows the design itself. This is the first step in the actual construction of the giant lantern.The frame is then lined with cardboard and foil. This is followed by another monumental task, placing the over 3,000 light bulbs in their proper places and wiring them up together. Even an expert electrical engineer would go crazy while working on this intricate network composed of hundreds of yards of electrical wires.

The wires are then connected to the rotors. And let me stress rotors with an "s" since barangays have to change the interplay of lights with each tune. In fact, some barangays even use as much as eight to ten of these steel barrels for variety in movement. Finally, there is of course the plastic covering, which is cut and shaped precisely to fit each section.

The Giant Lantern Festival is an inter-barangay contest. In past festivals, it really was a barangay effort and the best lantern makers of the barangay were called on to create the entry to the competition. During that time, each participating barangay had resident lantern makers. However, as the years passed, many of these lantern makers were unable to pass on the trade. Today, only Del Pilar, Sta. Lucia, Dolores and San Jose can boast of resident lantern makers. So to keep the show on the road, other barangays have to rely on lantern makers from other localities.

Ernesto D. Quiwa of Barangay Sta. Lucia is one of these veteran giant lantern makers. Although from Sta. Lucia, he has actually created lantern entries for other barangays. During last year's festival, Mang Erning created the entry for Barangay San Nicolas, which was adjudged the over-all champion of the year 2000 competition. His creations have in fact won the over-all honors in previous years including 1974, 1982, and a three-peat from 1993 to 1995. This year, he is again making the one for San Nicolas. In fact, aside from Sta. Lucia's own entry and the entry of San Nicolas, it is said that two other lantern entries are also being made in the same barangay. 

With all that discussion on the creation of a giant lantern, one realizes that just by looking at the many materials and the amount of effort put into each lantern, that would of course not be possible without any incurred costs. And the expenses are definitely not loose change and are said to be close to P100,000 for each of these giant lanterns. So where do the participating barangays get their funds? 

Being the most popular festival in Pampanga and world-renowned at that, no one can blame the City Government of San Fernando for putting so much value on the Giant Lantern Festival. It in fact provides the funding for most of the expenses of each lantern as it has done so in previous competitions. San Fernando is simply living up to its well-earned name as the unmatched "Christmas Capital of the Philippines." 

It is a work of love and full of passion. The San Fernando giant lantern is a product of Kapampangan innovation, creativity and tireless effort. So the next time you witness their spectacular display of lights and color, do appreciate the hard work put into each of these works of art that can be considered truly Kapampangan.

Thursday, December 08, 2005

Nippon Maru sailing the blue, blue ocean...

This is the time of year when reminiscing about my unforgettable SSEAYP experiences is on a pivotal high, as the M/S Nippon Maru docks in Manila as part of its mission to take young ambassadors of goodwill "to the ports of the world with a message of love and peace" as the Nippon Maru Song goes. I was doubly excited since the National Leader of Japan for this year was none other than my SG-mate and Japan Youth Leader during our year, Atsuko Sawano (Atchee) whom I missed so dearly.

Which is why despite my class schedule, I made an effort to attend the reunion on board the ship last December 6. To add to that was the sumptuous Nippon Maru buffet we always looked forward to during the reunions.

There were a big number of 2002 PYs in the reunion. Vel from Brunei also joined the reunion. While two of the OBSC representatives this year were our batchmates as well, Mongkol from Cambodia and Eak from Thailand.

Nippon Maru dinners and receptions are always a sight to behold and taste... from the sushi artistically arranged on large plates, to sumptuous dishes inspired by various ASEAN and Japanese favorites, to the desserts, most especially the ice cream! Red and white wine, sake and Japanese beer is served as well.

I immediately noticed Atchee in her intricate kimono. It was so heartwarming to see an old friend here in Manila. And right there and then, I knew I made the right decision of skipping classes since it would have been unkind of me if I did not even meet her on her first visit to our country (the ship did not dock in Manila during our year). We were able to catch up the whole evening, interrupted by the usual programs since she had to do various ceremonial tasks as a National Leader.

Of course, SSEAYP activities would not be complete without the photos. And unlucky are the people requested to take photos since they end up holding so many cameras, busily taking snapshots as PYs (once a PY, always a PY) keep that one-minute smile... hehe!

We had to leave the ship at 9 p.m. as part of ship regulations. But the alumni association always prepares another party for the current batch of PYs, host families, alumni and friends as part of the warm welcome prepared for the delegates. So we all headed to Shangri-La Plaza Mall Streetscape for this year's street party.

Boy, it's been quite a while since I went out, no thanks to the toxic MBA workload. And the night was definitely fun! Even as the party ended, our batch decided to take Atchee, Mongkol, Eak and Vel to Eastwood for coffee but since Starbucks was already closed, we ended up with a better option... giving them a taste of a Filipino breakfast via the breakfast buffet at Something's Fishy.

We were able to talk to Mongkol and Eak about our plans to visit their part of the world next summer. And Mongkol, as gracious as always, offered to host us during the visit. That is the fulfilling part about SSEAYP, you have friends in every corner of the ASEAN and Japan. Which is why I was thrilled to receive the e-mail promotion of AirAsia's limited offering of all their tickets for free! So I grabbed the opportunity immediately and booked my tickets to Malaysia, Cambodia and Thailand, with land trips to Laos and Singapore for next April! We ended quite late. All of us were exhaused. I was able to bring the them back to the ship at 4 a.m.

Poor me, I had work to finish and ended up in front of the computer til 1 p.m. Sleepless, I headed back to the ship and almost missed the farewell ceremonies because of the traffic, arriving just in the nick of time for me to give my present to Atchee. Back in 2002, she had given me her kimono and it was only now that I was able to reciprocate by giving her the very barong I wore during the program three years ago.

SSEAYP goodbyes are sad. And everytime the Nippon Maru sets sail for the next port, it always affects me as I watch it leave. The fun and heartwarming part about the closing ceremonies are the ticker tape farewells. I've always remembered the feeling of being the one throwing the tape from the ship down to the crowd below. But receiving the tape from someone close to you, being at the opposite end this time around struck me with a feeling of being left behind with all the memories, hoping that one day we would all meet again in this community we call the world.

I'd like to end on that note and prefer not to talk about my two hour ordeal in Manila's Christmas traffic jams. Hehe! Until next year, sayonara Nippon Maru!

Monday, December 05, 2005

Go Team Philippines!

23rd SEA Games Medal Tally
(Official as of 6:34 PM Dec. 5)


PHILIPPINES 113 84 94 291
THAILAND 87 78 118 283
68 89 228
64 175
INDONESIA 49 79 89 217
SINGAPORE 42 32 55 129
MYANMAR 17 34 48 99
LAOS 3 4 12 19
BRUNEI 1 2 2 5
9 12
TOTAL 444 434 583 1461

Congratulations to Team Philippines for winning its first overall championship in the Southeast Asian Games! And congratulations to my brods Timmy Chua '02 and Evan Grabador '04 for winning another bronze medal for the country in the men's 4x100m medley relay!

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